Four Industrial Revolutions

The Industrial Revolution: How it changed the World and Shaped Modern Society


The Industrial revolution is the time of major technological, economic and social changes that occurred in 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and America.

Industrial revolution converted manual labour work into mechanized work which was made possible due to development of new machinery, technology such as Steam Engine and Power loom. This shift of technology helped to improve productivity and economic growth and thereby social reforms.

The Industrial revolution had impact on society and economy, paving the way for modern industrialized society and shaping the course of human history.

Four Industrial Revolutions

Throughout the history, four Industrial revolutions have been put their mark on technology, Industry and human society.

1. Industry 1.0:

  • The first Industrial revolution occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century and was marked by the transition from manual labour work to machine based manufacturing.
  • Introduction of Steam Engine, Mechanization, Textile mills and Interchangeable parts are the major highlights of the Industry 1.0.
  • Key Industry: Manufacturing, Textiles and Mining Industry.

2. Industry 2.0:

  • The second Industrial Revolution occurred in late 19th century and early 20th century.


  • Industry 2.0 was marked by the worldwide adaptation of new technologies like electricity, the telephones, the Internal combustion engine, and great achievement in mass production.
  • Key Industry: Manufacturing, Textiles and Mining Industry.

3. Industry 3.0:

  • The Third Industrial Revolution occurred in late 20th century and early 21st century.
  • Widespread adaptation of digital technologies such as computers, the internet and mobile devices.
  • This revolution was specifically marked by use of computerization, automation and use of robotics in manufacturing processes.
  • Key Industry: Manufacturing and construction.

4. Industry 4.0:

  • Industry 4.0 is the current ongoing industrial revolution and is expected to lead to significant changes in the way we humans live and work in coming years.
  • Industry 4.0, this industrial revolution is a combination & integration of various newly coined technologies.

There is major nine key technologies of Industry 4.0

  1. Internet of Things (IOT)
  2. Advanced Robotics
  3. Artificial Intelligence
  4. Big Data Analytics
  5. Cloud Computing
  6. Additive Manufacturing, 3D Printing.
  7. Augmented Reality (AR)
  8. Virtual Reality (VR)
  9. Cyber Security

These technological trends are driving the development of “Smart Factory”, “Factory of the Future” where machines, devices and systems are interconnected and communicate with each other in real time.

To know more about Industry 4.0 and its key technologies,


Impact of the Industrial Revolution:

Industrial revolutions impacted a lot on all aspects of human life like way of living, way of working and way of thinking. Following are some major legacies of Industrial revolutions which are more prominent one.

  1. Industry Modernization: Industrial revolution changed the type of work, working culture by bringing new technologies in place. Such new industry and new form of labour laid the foundation for moder industry.
  2. Technology Innovation: Industrial revolution brought the technological changes like steam engine, telegraph which laid to bringing continued improvement in future technologies.
  3. Urbanization: Cities were the centre for industrial revolution which attracted manpower from villages to migrate in cities. This migration provided them job opportunities which was out of traditional agricultural field and good renumerations.
  4. Productivity enhancement: Manual labour work changed into mechanized one which led to higher productivity and profits. Challenges of manual labour were overcome in mechanization and output increased tremendously which helped to cater market demand.
  5. Improved standard of living: Although working condition of labour at initial phase of industrial revolution was not good, but over the time people started earning good and thereby standard of living of many got improved.
  6. Environmental Impact: Industrial revolution impacted on environment in adverse direction. Problems of air pollution, water pollution and degradation of environment quality was cased due to industrial revolution.
  7. Social & political impact: Industrial revolution caused the changes in social and political structure, with new forms of labour organization and political movements emerging to address the challenges and opportunities of industrialization.              

Industrial revolution was the transformative event in the human history, which changed course of the world in infinite number of ways and laying the foundation for the modern world in which we are living now.

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